Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided on Comments to the Editor).
- The file is in PDF or Microsoft Word, LibreOffice or RTF document file format.
- Tables and pictures are inserted at the end of the manuscript. Furthermore, pictures for definitive editing are prepared in separate .jpg or .gif files with at least 300 dpi resolution.
- You have put together a list of four potential referees (with a PhD or Doctor of Science degree) that you will inform in the text box "Comments to the Editor". In the list you have the complete name, Institutional Afiliation, Country, e-mail address and three key words that best decribe the area of expertise of each potential referee. At least two referees must be from countries different from the author's country of origin.
SECTION 1 – Initial submissions - Submit your way
Sociobiology provides a free-of-cost publication for authors and open access for readers.
1.1 – Instructions for Manuscript Preparation
Aiming to simplify the manuscript submission process, we are accepting INITIAL submissions to be presented in the format of your preference. This should allow authors, editors, and referees to focus on the quality of the reported science, saving valuable time for everyone involved. Only after your manuscript is accepted and enters the editing stage will you be required to present a version in Sociobiology's format (shown in SECTION 2). The editors will access this version and decide whether its standards justify further analysis by the referees. Please be aware that whatever format you choose:
a) present your text in DOUBLE SPACE with CONTINUOUS NUMBERED LINES (that is, line numbering does not restart at the beginning of every page).
b) use .PDF, .DOC, or .RTF format
c) regardless of file format, all manuscripts must present the essential elements needed to evaluate the scientific message (Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, Discussion Conclusions (or merge within Discussion), Acknowledgements, References, Figures, and Tables with Captions. Remember that at this stage, to ensure a double-blind review, authors' names and affiliations and the section Authors' contributions must not be included in the text.
d) make sure the text presents good readability and legibility. This includes (i) the way the words and blocks of type are arranged on a page and (ii) the right choice of typeface. As a rule: the reader (not the writer) decides whether a text is readable and legible. Hence, you should ensure that everyone -- and not only you-- will enjoy reading your text to access your ideas!
e) be aware that it is generally accepted that there is a close relationship between a sloppily prepared manuscript and poor science. Do not underestimate the value of a physically attractive manuscript format.
f) during step 3 of the online submission, the corresponding author must fill in the metadata for all co-authors (use the “Add author” button to add all co-authors' metadata), including the ORCID ID (from at least one author).
g) The sequence to correctly upload files in steps 2 (original article) and 4 (supplementary files) of the electronic submission is to choose the file (OJS will access your File Manager program), click the Upload button, and then click the button "Save and continue." Upload as many supplementary files as needed repeating this sequence. After completing the uploads, click "Save and continue." You will reach step 5, "Confirmation." Click the button "Finish Submission." Important reminder: OJS system limits file size upload to 8 MB per file.
1.2- Ensuring Blind Review
To ensure the integrity of the blind peer review for submission to this journal, every effort should be made to prevent the identities of the authors and reviewers from being known to each other. This involves the authors, editors, and reviewers (who upload documents as part of their review) checking to see if the following steps have been taken about the text and the file properties:
- The document's authors have deleted their names from the text.
With Microsoft Office documents, author identification should also be removed from the file's properties.
For Microsoft 2003 and previous versions and Macintosh versions of Word:
- Under the File menu, select: Save As > Tools (or Options with a Mac) > Security > Remove personal information from file properties on save > Save.
For MacIntosh Word 2008 (and future versions)
- Under the File menu, select "Properties."
- Under the Summary tab, remove all the identifying information from all fields.
- Save the File.
For Microsoft 2007 (Windows):
- Click on the office button in the upper-left-hand corner of the office application
- Select "Prepare" from the menu options.
- Select "Properties" for the "Prepare" menu options.
- Delete all the information in the document property fields that appear under the main menu options.
- Save the document and close the document property field section.
For Microsoft 2010 (Windows):
- Under the File menu, select "Prepare for sharing."
- Click on the "Check for issues" icon.
- click on the "inspect document" icon.
- Uncheck all checkboxes except "Document Properties and Personal information."
- Run the document inspector, which will search the document properties and indicate if any document property fields contain any information.
- If the document inspector finds that some document properties contain information, it will notify you and give you the option to "Remove all," which you will click to remove the document properties and personal data from the document.
For PDF files:
- With PDFs, the author's names should be removed from Document Properties found under File on Adobe Acrobat's main menu.
Please see these video tutorials for extra guidance on the submission process:
Registering as a user and submitting a manuscript
This is all you need for your initial submission.
SECTION 2- Accepted Manuscripts
Congratulations!!! Your manuscript has been accepted for publication online. Now, we would like you to work with us to edit your paper as carefully as possible.
2.1- File formatting
We ask you to remember that we count on the voluntary work of editors and a small paid staff that cannot waste costly and precious time fixing formatting and typeset inconsistencies generated by non-obedience to Authors' Guidelines.
Submitting a manuscript that follows the authors' guidelines is an elementary demonstration of appreciation for the journal and its collaborative, open-access publication philosophy.
All manuscripts submitted to Sociobiology must be written in English, with clarity and readability in mind. Manuscripts are subject to editing to ensure conformity to editorial standards and journal style.
- Submit the manuscript as an MS Word or RTF file with a page size Letter, 8.5 x 11".
- Use continuous line numbering on all pages of your manuscript.
- Type all as double-spaced, with 1-inch margins, and do not right justify text.
- Use the font Times (New) Roman with a size of 12 points.
- Left-justify the title, author line, affiliation lines, subheadings, text, and References Cited.
- Insert tabs, not spaces, for paragraph indents.
- Use italicization only to indicate scientific names (including viruses), symbols or variables, and defined words.
- Use quotation marks for quoted material only.
- Use American English spelling.
- Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page.
- Lines in the manuscript must be numbered.
- Begin each of the following on a separate page and arrange in the following order: title page, abstract and keywords (three to six words), manuscript text, acknowledgments, references cited, footnotes, tables, figure legends, and figures.
- Type all captions on a separate page and put each figure and table on a separate page.
- Make sure the file size (in Word, Libre Office, or TRF format) does not exceed 8MB. This is the maximum upload file size in the OJS setup. If the manuscript is larger than that due to high-resolution figures, leave only figure legends in the file. Prepare figures in JPG or GIF format with sizes up to 4 MB and upload individual figures as supplementary files. During the upload of supplementary files, in step 4, name the files with titles corresponding to the number of figures in the manuscript text. Check the option "Present supplementary files to reviewers."
- The sequence to correctly upload files in steps 2 (original article) and 4 (supplementary files) of the electronic submission is to choose the file (OJS will access your File Manager program), click the Upload button, and then click the button "Save and continue." Upload as many supplementary files as needed repeating this sequence. After completing the uploads, click "Save and continue." You will reach step 5, "Confirmation." Click the button "Finish Submission." Please see these video tutorials for extra guidance on the submission process:
2.2- Manuscript Preparation Instructions
Please strictly obey the sequence below.
a) Running title, maximum of 60 characters (including letters, punctuation, and spaces between words)
b) Manuscript type ("article", "review", "short note")
c) Title: concise and identifying the connection between the main idea and the variables or scientific problem discussed in the paper. Capitalize the first letters of each word, except for prepositions (at, by, with, from, and, to).
d) Author(s) name(s) should be center justified below the title using small capital letters. Only the given name and last name shall be provided in full; middle names must be abbreviated. Names of different authors are separated by commas, without the use of "and" or "&" (Examples: Roger C. Ferguson, Laura G. Simons, Frederic L. J. Nielsen, Carol Stone)
e) Affiliation, containing institution, town, State/Province abbreviation, and country. Provide a partial postal address.
f) Keywords: provide a maximum of 6 keywords. Please don't repeat words from the title here.
g) Corresponding author: provide full postal address plus email.
2.2.2 - Page 2 – Abstract
The abstract must be easy to understand and not require reference to the body of the article. Please make sure the paper's main contribution is presented clearly in the abstract. The text must not contain any abbreviations or statistical details. Type ABSTRACT followed by a hyphen and the text. The abstract must be one paragraph long and be at most 250 words.
2.2.3 - Main Text
Introduction - Sociobiology strongly recommends making explicit here the hypothesis being tested.
Material and Methods - This section must provide enough information to replicate the research. Please include the statistical design and methods, if necessary, and the name and version of the software used for analysis.
Results - mean values must be followed by the mean, standard error, and the number of observations. Units of measurement must be separated from the value by a blank space (e.g., 10 cm, 25 kg/m). Present p-values in lowercase (e.g., p < 0.05). For extra guidance on statistics and measures, notation see:
Discussion - here, it is strongly recommended that you focus on how the results contribute to advancing scientific knowledge in the specific subject area and, preferably, beyond it. Please make sure you clearly express whether the working hypothesis was accepted and what analysis supports its acceptance or refutation.
Acknowledgments - The text must be concise and contain the recognition to people first (including "anonymous referees"), and then institutions and sponsors.
Authors' contribution -Provide a statement on the scientific/intellectual contribution of each co-author, following the CRediT taxonomy, as follows:
CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) was created to recognize individual author contributions, reduce authorship conflicts, and facilitate collaboration. Its proposition took place in a workshop held by Harvard University and the Welcome Trust, in 2012, with the participation of researchers, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and publishers.
CRediT allows readers to have an accurate and detailed description of the diverse contributions of each author to the published work.
The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the role descriptions are accurate and that all authors agree on the order in which their names will be listed in the manuscript. The role(s) of all authors should be listed using the relevant categories as follows.
Terms and Definitions*
Conceptualization - Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims
Methodology - Development or design of methodology; creation of models
Software - Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components
Validation - Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/ reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs
Formal analysis - Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data
Investigation - Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments or data/evidence collection
Resources - Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools
Data Curation - Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data, and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse
Writing - Original Draft - Preparation, creation, and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation)
Writing - Review & Editing - Preparation, creation, and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary, or revision – including pre-or post-publication stages
Visualization - Preparation, creation, and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/ data presentation
Supervision - Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team
Project administration - Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution
Funding acquisition - Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication
* Reproduced from Brand et al. (2015), Learned Publishing 28(2), with due credit to the authors.
Contributions such as technical help, collection of data, writing assistance, funding, and grants, or a lab chairperson who provided space or other support need to meet the criteria for authorship. With permission from the contributor, they must be presented in an Acknowledgments section.
Data availability statement - To assure research and peer verification replicability, authors will be strongly encouraged to make data sets, software codes, genetic sequences, and other original data available to the scientific community. You can provide these data as supplementary material or as material available on a personal/institutional homepage or in an open digital preservation repository (e.g.,https://zenodo.org). In your manuscript, include a statement on where such data will be available.
References - It is mandatory to include DOI numbers if available for the cited paper. Most articles published in the 2000s have a DOI number. Journal names must be typed in full (not abbreviated) in all references.
Under the section title, type the references in alphabetical order, one per paragraph, with no space between them.
The authors’ family names are typed first in full, followed by capital initials, followed by a period. For more than one initial, do not leave space (ex.: Wilson, E.O.)
Use a comma to separate the names of authors.
Add the reference year after the authors' family name between parentheses. Journal names in full.
Please refrain from citing monographs, partial research reports, abstracts of papers presented at scientific meetings, dissertations, theses, and extension materials.
Examples of reference style:
Hölldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. (1990). The Ants. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 732 p
Chapter or article in an edited book
Cushman, J.H. & Addicott, J.F. (1991). Conditional interactions in ant-plant-herbivore mutualisms. In C.R. Huxley & D.F. Cutler (Eds.), Ant-plant interactions (pp. 92-103). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
References retrieved from the web address
Bolton, B. (2011). Catalog of species-group taxa. http://gap.entclub.org/contact.html. (accessed date: 1 August 2016).
Hassler, E.E., Cazier, J.A., Hopkins, B., Wilkes, J.T., Smith, K. & Rünzel, M. (2021) A century of discovery: Mining 100 years of honey bee research. Journal of Apicultural Research, 60: 3-12.
The issue number should be indicated only if each journal issue begins on page 1.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article title and subtitle and any proper nouns.
Capitalize the first letter of every main word in the journal title (reminder: journal title in full).
Do not include a digital object identifier (DOI). This will be done by Sociobiology's staff.
Journal articles, if published only online
Liu, N., Cheng, D.M., Xu, H.H. & Zhang, Z.X. (2011). Behavioral and lethal effects of α-terthienyl on the Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA). Chinese Agricultural Science, 44: 4815-4822. Retrieved from: http://18.104.22.168:81/Jwk_zgnykx/EN/Y2011/V44/I23/4815
Group or organization as author
Organization Name. (Year). Details of the work as appropriate to a printed or electronic form.
Preparation of Tables
Tables must be placed separately, one per page, after the References section. Please number tables consecutively with Arabic numbers in the same order they are referred to in the text. Footnotes must have call numbers. Use the word "Table" in full in the text (example: Table 1).
Be careful about correctly aligning variables and respective values in columns and lines.
Example of a table title:
Table 1. Frequency of the four types of ovaries within the colonies of Angiopolibia pallens.
Preparation of Figures
To speed up the editing work and produce a neat layout for the articles, please prepare the figure files according to the journal guidelines: insert the list of figures after the tables. Use the abbreviation "Fig" in the titles and the text (such as Fig 3).
Prepare figures in TIF format, with at least 300 dpi of resolution. It is the better format for the quality of your published work. However, exceptions to this format can be discussed with editors if necessary.
In the editing process, small figures will be set as a one-column object (Sociobiology articles are edited in two columns layout). Please produce small figures with a width size of 86.5 mm, while the height can be up to 210 mm.
In the editing process, large figures will be set as objects placed over two columns. Please produce large figures with a maximum width of 179 mm, while the height can vary up to 85 mm for one-third of a page, 120 mm for half of a page, or 185 mm for two-thirds of the page.
Please use the appropriate font size for axis or box legends and values to ensure good resolution for text in the figures. If axis or box legends are too extensive and require a small font size for full typing, create abbreviations for the variables and refer to the variables' full text as figure footnotes. A font size between 9 and 12 pt for Times New Roman or Calibri can yield a good resolution for figure text (followed by the widths and heights suggested above).
2.3- In-text Citations
For insect nomenclature, write the scientific names in full, followed by the author's family name, when they are first mentioned in the Abstract and the body of the text, e.g., Polistes canadensis (L.). Use the abbreviated generic name (e.g., P. canadensis) in the rest of the manuscript, except in tables and figures, where the species name shall be typed in full.
For plant nomenclature, look for the most updated rules, but prioritize providing the author names and botanical family.
When you refer to a single author, include the author's family name and year of publication using one of the forms shown here.
Ginsberg (2005) argues that the local diversity of bees is driven by species selection from a regional diversity pool. or
The local diversity of bees is driven by species selection from a regional diversity pool (Ginsberg, 2005).
For two authors, include the family names of both authors and the year.
According to Smith and Velasquez (2009), chaparrals are a source of endemism for ants in the Venezuelan Andes. or
Chaparrals are a source of endemism for ants in the Venezuelan Andes (Smith & Velazquez, 2009).
Use 'and' when family names are outside parentheses; use '&' when family names are inside parentheses.
For three or more authors, cite the first author’s family name, plus 'et al.' and the year.
If more than one reference has to be cited, follow the chronological order of publication, separated with semicolons (for example, Xia & Liu, 1998; Savannah, 2003; Balestreri, 2006; Ustachenko et al., 2010). Use 'and' when family names are outside parentheses; use '&' when family names are inside parentheses.
Sociobiology strongly recommends not using the secondary source (i.e., citations referring to one author (secondary) who cites another (primary)).
Article or chapter in an edited book
If a chapter or article written by a contributing author to an edited book has to be cited, please let the author of the chapter or article know. This author is cited in the text (that is, in the body of the paper) in the same way as for one or more authors.
Group or organization as author
Whenever the author is a government agency, association, corporate body, or the like, which has a familiar or easily understandable acronym, it is cited as follows:
The reduction of airborne polluting particles in Cleveland resulted in increased bee species richness in park areas in the 1990s (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2006).
Note: The entry in the reference list is under Environmental Protection Agency.
Personal communications are understood as letters, e-mails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, and the like. They must be in text only and are not included in a reference list.
J. Ahmed (personal communication, May 11, 2010) indicated …
… (L. Stainer, Senior Researcher, Social Insects Study Centre, personal communication, June 4, 2009)
2.4 - Scientific Notes
Manuscripts of anecdotal nature and/or that merely report new geographic occurrences, trophic interactions, records of species, or host associations to new localities in geographical regions they are already known will not be accepted. Short notes must report more elaborated work that incorporates the aspects required for full articles (biology, ecology, genetics, behavior, reproductive biology, caste studies, etc.).
Scientific notes should be prepared as a single text and references. Do not include subtitles (Introduction, Material and Methods, and Results and Discussion). The abstract must have up to 150 words, and the text no longer than 1,000 words. Figures or tables can be included if highly necessary, summing up to 3 objects (Figures + Tables) at a maximum.
Extensive interpretative or evaluative articles on current topics related to the biology of social arthropods can be published upon invitation by the Associate Editors. The Editorial Board is not responsible for the opinions expressed in the articles (Scientific notes, research articles, and reviews).
SECTION 3 - Important reminders on the submission process
3.1 - Fill in Metadata Forms
It is important to fill in all metadata forms with an asterisk (mandatory fields) during the five steps of the submission process. Additionally, please include metadata on all authors that appear in the manuscript. The first field that appears can be filled in with submitter metadata, and by clicking the button "Add author" new forms will appear for us as many authors as needed. Author metadata is important for abstracting and indexing purposes. Remember that in modern days indexing agencies have online data harvesters. Any omission or lack of accuracy in authors, disciplines, and keywords metadata can affect the visibility of authors' work.
3.2 - List of Potential reviewers
Put together a list of four potential referees you will inform in the text box "Comments to the Editor" during the electronic submission process. In the list, you need the complete name, Institutional Affiliation, Country, e-mail address, and three keywords that best describe the area of expertise of each potential referee.
At least two referees must be from countries different from the author's country of origin.
3.3 - Journal Access
Accepted manuscripts will be published free of charge, reprints will not be provided. The authors and the public will have full online access to PDF files of all published articles. Sociobiology publishes under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Evandro do Nascimento Silva
Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana
Av. Transnordestina s/n Novo Horizonte
Feira de Santana – BA Brazil
Research Article - AntsPolítica padrão de seção
Sociobiology is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This follows the BOAI definition of open access.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).